THE RESEARCH DATA OF O. J. HARVEY’S COGNITIVE SYSTEMS WITH THE
BASIC RESEARCH DATA OF
CLARE GRAVES’ LEVELS OF EXISTENCE THEORY
by William R. Lee
[revised November, 2001]
During the 1960s and 1970s when Dr. Graves was doing his research
and traveling around the country presenting his theory he would
from time to time pass through Washington, D.C. where he would meet
with the local Values Group. (The Washington, D.C. area Values Group
existed for about nine years in the 1970s.) It was at this time
that the Values Group managed to contact Dr. O. J. Harvey and asked
him to present some of his research to the Values Group when he
passed through our area and he agreed. We knew that the Cognitive
Systems of Dr. Harvey were similar to the Levels of Existence Theory
that Dr. Graves was presenting.
basic research was conducted in the 1950s and 1960s at Union College
in Schenectady, New York. At the Washington School of Psychiatry on
Oct. 16, 1971, Dr. Graves made a presentation in which he stated
that a former student of his, David Hunt, was part of the
Harvey-Hunt-Schroder group at the University of Colorado where Dr.
Harvey was developing his Cognitive Systems point of view. Dr.
Graves stated that Dr. Harvey was "a colleague of mine, who I’ve
worked with considerably" and that "he and I shared a lot
back and forth." A number of references, like these, over the
years of knowing Dr. Graves, have indicated to me that Dr. Graves
and Dr. Harvey shared a lot of information about each other’s
research. Many of the tests that Dr. Graves gave his subjects were
the same tests that O. J. Harvey gave his subjects.
I am presenting a
comparison of the test results of the four cognitive systems that
Dr. Harvey obtained at the University of Colorado (Construct
Validity of the Four Systems – pages 48-65, 1996) with the test
results obtained by Dr. Graves at Union College. The reason for
comparing the work of these two researchers is to show that the test
results they obtained working with different populations of subjects
are almost identical.
System - Flex Flow
System - Human Bond
System - Strive Drive
System - Truth Force
Ranking is from a High
of 4 - down to a Low of 1.
Don & Christopher Cowan. Spiral Dynamics: Mastering Values,
Leadership, and Change. Blackwell Publishers, Oxford, 1996. (U.S.
Office -- 238 Main Street, Cambridge, Mass. 02142)
O. J. Editor, Experience, Structure, & Adaptability. Springer
Publishing Company, Inc., 1966.
O. J. Editor, Motivation and Social Interaction: Cognitive
The Ronald Press Company. New York, 1963.
The test discussions begin on page 48 in the 1966 edition
and move through page 64. The tests and the page number in the
1966 edition are in parentheses on the right side of the table
above the test results for O. J. Harvey.
A full description of the Cognitive Systems of O.J. Harvey can
be found in Chapter 4, System Structure, Flexibility and Creativity,
in the 1966 book, pages 39 - 64.]
tests that are listed are those tests which Dr. Harvey gave to his
subjects. The tests and test results are presented in the1966 book
and at times only a portion of the test results are made available.
The specific tests, which Dr. Graves gave to his subjects, are not
identified. Dr. Graves would refer to the test results, which he
had obtained from his subjects, but he rarely disclosed what specific
tests he had used in his research.
fine day Dr. Graves cleaned out one of his sheds on his farm in
Rexford, New York and apparently threw out a great deal of his basic
research data which left him with only his test results. We are
fairly sure that Dr. Graves used the same tests as Dr. Harvey. All
these tests were available during this time period.
keep in mind that both of these researchers worked with a very small
number of subjects in the beginning of their basic studies. Since
establishing their theoretical positions they have expanded their
data bases. Also note that the 4 systems (4-5-6-7) were the basic
systems identified through research by Dr. Graves in the 1950s before
he discovered systems 3 and 8. Dr. Graves' test results can be found
in the tape transcription of the presentation by Dr. Graves at the
Washington School of Psychiatry Seminar on Levels of Existence on
October 16, 1971.
Scale of Values
to be Different
new concept speed
against belief in public and private
against belief in public
against belief in private