the Historical Collection of the work of Dr. Clare W. Graves
presentations, papers, recorded transcripts, notes-
William R. Lee
Basically the intent is very simple. It is to bring before you
one way to make the specifics of each managerial situation more
manageable - to bring before you some clues upon which appropriate
management can be based in different managerial situations. The
substance of this way is encompassed in the title of this paper;
How, Should Who, Lead Whom, to do What?" - a title which
suggests that there are some subtle relationships between:
1. Methods for managing.
2. The manager or supervisor utilizing the available methods.
3. The supervised person - the one who is expected to respond
to the methods. Andů
4. The nature of the work being done by those who are being
supervised or managed.
One relationship, which must be known if management is to be
effective, derives from research in the field of cybernetics - a
discipline that has markedly affected the managerial world in
Managers and administrators are well aware of the impact
cybernetics has had upon their work. But my title suggests that
they are not as attentive as they might be to one of its research
results. They have not, as Eugene Koprowski says:
- sufficiently shifted their decision making activity away
from the mechanics of the decision making process.
- away from how to collect information, how to retrieve
information, and how to process information through decision
They have not turned as much as they might:
- to the thoughtful identification of problems on which to
concentrate their energies and a wide range of innovative
solutions. (Koprowski, 1968)
This they have not done because they don't have a means for
innovating solutions even when they are able to recognize them.
As a result many ailing organizations suffer because their
managers cannot see their problems and because they don't have a
means for innovating solutions even when they are able to
This oversight, however, cannot properly be attributed to
managers. It is not they who should be blamed for the laxity of
other people. The fault lies with us behavioral scientists - with
us who have failed to build on certain foundation blocks laid down
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